Simply put: the garbage-dump becomes a complex and diverse bio-coop a variant of the platform coop The bio-coop functions as a site of processing and the role for humans in this scenario is to tend to the bacteria the primary processing agent.
To illustrate this, the group compared their scenario to sourdough starters in both cases: humans tend to bacteria to make them thrive. The bio-cooperative between bacteria culture and humans demands the development of a shared coop culture, where the norm is to feed and to tend to each other. The group examined different types of formal agreements, different ways through which the desired behaviour of people could be enforced, and looked at mechanisms like contracts and promises.
Contracts depend on an enforcement by the state and are rather different from more casual promises, but both relate to trust. The group realised they were tip-toeing around the idea of focusing on practices, cultures and norms, and found that they were not interested in rights and enforcements, but rather in norms and relationships.
These norms could best be fostered over time, the group found, through LARPing.
This would enable the people to practice the desired cultural norms until they simply become the norm, a habit of sorts. They would be LARPing their way to the truth. In this scenario, commoning becomes a continuous social practice, it is simply the thing one does. From here, one could rather easily imagine creating a cult-like, religious-esque entity that embodies these values.
A place where, in order to belong, one tends to the bacteria. The use of politics and culture becomes an ethics of care. This group took a wider speculative trajectory, and discussed the relationship between employees and corporations and compared this to the functioning of the human body, looking at the roles of entities within other entities. They described how gut bacteria can be seen as employees and how you could imagine them unionising, for example, if they wanted to refuse to digest protein. The group tried to create a constitution governing these entities and measured this against human rights.
For example, how would we treat an intestine infection if we looked at the body from an ecological perspective? The intestine gains certain independent rights, separate from the encapsulating body.
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For example, oxygen needs to enter the body. There are vital external relationships, so things such as air and food also become corporations. Although some implications of this scenario could appear absurd, and although the exact legal structure that would govern the internal body was not fully fleshed out, the basic notion of replacing the concept of a natural person by that of a particular kind of corporation seemed potentially viable.
This was an answer to the remaining 5th question: it positions the human body as one element in a massively cooperative ecosystem of corporations. Through engineering works an oasis has formed in a desert area. This oasis consists of a collection of plants, animals, tools, machines and humans, organised together as a corporation with one clear strategic mission: to produce ecological capital - living soil - as opposed to financial profit.
A certain precariousness immediately emerges because, as a desirable place for human living, there will be a constant influx of human refugees for whom solutions need to be found. The choice was made to not militarise the border of this oasis, but to look for other solutions. A viable approach for the oasis to manage this influx and balance it with its strategic goal was proposed: it should spawn offspring-oasis.
To send off unskilled newcomers with a bunch of machines and plants would be risky and could be wasteful. They could reliably go and create new oasis, based on the same principles elsewhere. The initial idea was, again, that as an organisation this oasis would run on set tasks and obligations. But how to oblige non-human species? The notion of rights and obligations of the 4th question appeared to be too human-centric to work with. Therefore, the group re-imagined the obligations into a list of functions that need fulfilling, including tasks like: digging, decomposing, transport, tending, detoxifying, etc.
An important realisation was made that this was actually a set of behaviours in a network of relations, that as a whole required the active presence of humans, machines, plants, bacteria, and animals. The chemical and the cultural and physical and other exchanges all had to seen as tasks, roles and behaviours, and part of a corporate culture.
This formed an answer to the 4th question. It was acknowledged that this was not necessarily a very utopian scenario. This implies violence, as it demands that the desert loses its original state.
It would thus be a form of colonialism, albeit with a different logic. The model articulates a potential for an economic process based on ecological creation as opposed to a logic of extraction, and would lead to liveable spaces with a dense organo-technic ecosystem in former desert areas.
Currently, we are under the impression that variations of the corporation structure could provide a framework with which a space separate from capitalist market logic can be created. We believe the anthropocentrism in these spaces could be radically diminished, and that these spaces can serve as sites of emancipation, balancing out a new post natural order.
In many ways, however, these are hunches more than they are absolute conclusions. There is an undeniable need for more time to more extensively exert collective research efforts unto this field, as well as for experts of various kinds to join us in discussing these issues further. Noteworthy was that in all scenarios the question of rights and obligations was related to the issue of sentience. A bacteria does not know it has obligations. All groups also arrived at the potential of corporate culture to perceive and relate behaviours among different classes of beings.
However, this does not rule out the possibility of replacing the notion of natural person by a kind of corporation. In this frame of thinking, the distinction between the natural and the legal person would simply become irrelevant.
The 21st Century Constitution - Kindle edition by Barry Krusch. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. Use features like. Making a 21st Century Constitution. Playing Fair in Modern Democracies. Frank Vibert, Senior Visiting Fellow, Department of Government, London School of.
All that remains is a world inhabited by incorporated relational entities. Skip to main content. Het Nieuwe Instituut.
Visit Plan your visit Plan your visit Practical information for visitors Check the agenda Check the agenda An overview of all activities and exhibitions Thursday Night Live! Thursday Night Live! Search form Search. Facebook Twitter Instagram Audiolibrary Newsletter. Yamuna River, India, which has been granted the status of natural person under Indian law.
Photo: Ajay Tallam. Should corporations always also include one or more humans? Why, or why not? Should the notion of the natural person be abandoned altogether or not? Should the notion of the natural person be altogether abandoned or not?
manglopwahamp.cf A Focus on Relations In response to question 1, some posited that what should be incorporated is an ecological niche, as a single unit. The precise location on the continuum will depend on the value preferences of the domestic stakeholders and the matters under consideration. The application of this analytical framework is illustrated with reference to recent constitution-making exercises in Bhutan, Nepal, Thailand, East Timor and Sri Lanka.
Arguably unsurprisingly, this also produced constitutions that strongly resembled that of the European colonial powers, see e. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Cf Resolution for the appointment of the Constitutional Assembly n 53 points 4 b , 11 and Kumarasingham n 7 ; Lapping n 7. See e.
This makes it difficult for a single, unified view to emerge on how to structure the constitution-writing process and which constitutional arrangements to adopt, and by implication, how to appreciate the input that the global can provide on these matters. Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection. This data will be updated every 24 hours. Login Alert. Log in. Aa Aa. Check if you have access via personal or institutional login.
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