Physiology Process of Sensory Perception

13.1 Sensory Receptors
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The superior temporal gyrus contains several important structures of the brain, including: 1 marking the location of the primary auditory cortex, the cortical region responsible for the sensation of sound. Sections 41 and 42 are called the primary auditory area of the cerebrum, and processes the basic characteristics of sound such as pitch and rhythm.

Visual attention

The auditory association area is located within the temporal lobe of the brain, in an area called the Wernicke's area, or area This area, near the lateral cerebral sulcus, is an important region for the processing of acoustic energy so that it can be distinguished as speech, music, or noise. It also interprets words that are heard into an associated thought pattern of understanding.

The gnostic area of the cerebrum, areas 5, 7, 39 and 40 helps to integrate all incoming sense patterns so that a common thought can be formed correlated using all arriving sensory information. Hearing threshold and the ability to localize sound sources are reduced underwater.

Underwater, hearing is by bone conduction and localization of sound appears to depend on differences in amplitude detected by bone conduction. Humans are normally able to hear a variety of sound frequencies, from about 20Hz to 20kHz. Our ability to estimate just where the sound is coming from, sound localization, is dependent on both hearing ability of each of the two ears, and the exact quality of the sound. Since each ear lies on an opposite side of the head, a sound will reach the closest ear first, and its amplitide will be loudest in that ear.

Much of the brain's ability to localize sound depends on interaural between ears intensity differences and interaural temporal or phase differences. Bushy neurons can resolve time differences as small as the time it takes sound to pass one ear and reach the other 10 milliseconds. For high frequencies, frequencies with a wavelength shorter than the listener's head, more sound reaches the nearer ear. Human echolocation is a technique involving echolocation used by some blind humans to navigate within their environment.

Equilibrioception or sense of balance is one of the physiological senses. It allows humans and animals to walk without falling. Some animals are better in this than humans, for example allowing a cat as a quadruped using its inner ear and tail to walk on a thin fence. All forms of equilibrioception can be described as the detection of acceleration.

Gene Ontology and GO Annotations

It is determined by the level of fluid properly called endolymph in the labyrinth - a complex set of tubing in the inner ear. You can temporarily disturb your sense of balance by closing your eyes and turning rapidly in circles five or six times. This starts the fluid swirling in circles inside your ear canal. When you stop turning it takes a few seconds for the fluid to lose momentum, and until then the sense from your inner ear conflicts with the information coming from your vision, causing dizziness and disorientation.

Most astronauts find that their sense of balance is impaired when in orbit, because there is not enough gravity to keep the ear's fluid in balance. This causes a form of motion sickness called space sickness. Case Study A year-old woman wakes up not feeling well.

She believes that she may be coming down with the flu due to nausea that she is feeling, so she continues with her day. As the day progresses so does the feeling of nausea. While watching a movie with members of her family, the sick feeling seems to intensify and so they leave the movie.

36.1: Sensory Processes

In the lobby of the movie theater she becomes very unbalanced and collapses. The fear is that she is experiencing a stroke. After being taken to the hospital via ambulance, the ER doctors also feel that it may be a stroke and do CAT scans to verify. Nothing shows up on the scans but the feeling of nausea and vertigo are intense. The woman is later diagnosed with an inner ear infection.

The next months of her life are filled with antibiotics, balance therapy and continued nausea and vertigo. Nothing seems to help so the doctors go into her inner ear surgically through her skull.

36.2: Somatosensation

They cut the vestibular nerve that is linked to the balance center on the left side. The right inner ear will eventually compensate for this loss of balance however it will take months of balance therapy. After a year from the onset on the inner ear infection, the woman has had three inner ear surgeries, loss of hearing in the left ear and problems with her balance.

Doctors have told her they have done everything that they can and that she will now have to live with these conditions on a daily basis. Cochlear Implants A cochlear implant is a device which has been used to restore hearing function to some deaf and hearing impaired people.

  • General Sensory Physiology, Psychophysics.
  • You Cant Take My Memories of You?
  • Sensory Acuity!

It consists of an internal device; which extends electrodes into the cochlea and indirectly stimulates the auditory nerve, and an external device; which works much like a hearing aid, except it transmits information to the internal device rather than to the ear. The cochlear implant basically bypasses the middle ear and the cochlea hair cells, and allows some people with damage to these structures to hear 'electronically'. The answers for these critical thinking questions can be found here. Touch is the first sense developed in the womb and the last sense used before death.

With 50 touch receptors for every square centimeter and about 5 million sensory cells overall, the skin is very sensitive and is the largest and one of the most complex organs in our bodies.

These touch receptors are grouped by type and include Mechanoreceptors sensitive to pressure, vibration and slip , Thermoreceptors sensitive to changes in temperature , and Nocioreceptors responsible for pain. Pacinian corpuscles detect gross pressure changes and vibrations. They are the largest of the receptors. Any deformation in the corpuscle causes action potentials to be generated, by opening pressure-sensitive sodium ion channels in the axon membrane.

europeschool.com.ua/profiles/pyfoteja/mujeres-espanolas-desnudas.php This allows sodium ions to influx in, creating a receptor potential. Pacinian corpuscles cause action potentials when the skin is rapidly indented but not when the pressure is steady, due to the layers of connective tissue that cover the nerve ending Kandel et al. It is thought that they respond to high velocity changes in joint position. Meissner's corpuscles are distributed throughout the skin, but concentrated in areas especially sensitive to light touch, such as the fingertips, palms, soles, lips, tongue, face, nipples and the external skin of the male and female genitals.

They are primarily located just beneath the epidermis within the dermal papillae. Since they are rapidly adapting or phasic, the action potentials generated quickly decrease and eventually cease. If the stimulus is removed, the corpuscle regains its shape and while doing so ie: while physically reforming causes another volley of action potentials to be generated. This is the reason one stops "feeling" one's clothes.

This process is called sensory adaption. Because of their superficial location in the dermis, these corpuscles are particularly sensitive to touch and vibrations, but for the same reasons, they are limited in their detection because they can only signal that something is touching the skin. Meissner's corpuscles do not detect pain; this is signaled exclusively by free nerve endings. In humans, Merkel cells occur in the superficial skin layers, and are found clustered beneath the ridges of the fingertips that make up fingerprints.

Merkel nerve endings are extremely sensitive to tissue displacement, and may respond to displacements of less than 1 um. Several studies indicate that they mediate high-resolution tactile discrimination, and are responsible for the ability of our fingertips to feel fine detailed surface patterns e. Ruffini corpuscles are Thermoreceptors, aiding in the detection of temperature changes. Named after Angelo Ruffini, the Ruffini ending is a class of slowly adapting mechanoreceptor thought to exist only in the glabrous dermis and subcutaneous tissue of humans.

This spindle-shaped receptor is sensitive to skin stretch, and contributes to the kinesthetic sense of and control of finger position and movement. Wouldn't it wonderful if you could no longer feel pain. Is that not something we all would like to have? Or do we have pain for a good reason? Although it is rare there is a disease known as congenital insensitivity to pain. This genetic abnormality cause some people to lack certain components of the sensory system to receive pain.

The exact reason for the problem is unknown and varies between people. Sadly people who have the disease often die in childhood.

Injuries are very common with people who have congenital insensitivity to pain. They often will lose digits, may suffer from burns and their knees often have sores from kneeling to long. Clearly pain has a purpose, it is our warning signal when things are awry. Newborns can feel all different sensations, but respond most enthusiastically to soft stroking, cuddling and caressing.

Gentle rocking back and forth will oftentimes calm a crying infant, as will massages and warm baths. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide.

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My whole family likes eating a variety of foods, so it seems that we all have the same level of sensitivity. Circumvallate papillae : Papillae that are present on the back of the oral part of the tongue. The Eye in the Orbit. Rhodopsin, the photopigment in rods, is most sensitive to light at a wavelength of nm. Other transmembrane proteins, which are not accurately called receptors, are sensitive to mechanical or thermal changes. A third classification of receptors is by how the receptor transduces stimuli into membrane potential changes.

Physiology of Special Senses and Perception 1. Sensation andSensation and PerceptionPerception Dr. Anatomy of the EyeAnatomy of the Eye Disease, age, andcells, or auditory nerve. Disease, age, and exposure to loud music can cause nerveexposure to loud music can cause nerve deafness. Thesecalled the olfactory epithelium.